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India was the first country in the world too set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources in early 1980’s. India is a country which has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. It has been observed that India has made impressive strides in developing its abundant solar power potential within a short span of time. India’s concerted efforts to develop solar power began in January 2010, when the country launched the Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) as one of the eight missions under the country’s National Action Plan for climate change. It has actually been paving the way for a Transformational Future.
My Experience at ReYuvaNation

My Experience at ReYuvaNation
By Vikram Sai
4th Year Dual Degree Petroleum Engineering,
ISM Dhanbad


It was the last week of November and the weather was changing!  Fighting through the chilling cold with the help of woollen clothes, jackets, blankets and some books, we were waging war against our End Semester Examinations. In the midst of this came to know about the PETROTECH Youth Forum, and the news that students would be selected to Youth Forum and PETROTECH 2014 conference through online competitions instilled energy in us and we became more enthusiastic, eagerly counting each exam to end so that we can participate in the competitions. Exams ended, and after 2 days was my Viva-Voce examination, after which I would be travelling to home for a one month winter vacation. I went through the website of Youth Forum- “ReYuvaNation”. There were 3 online competitions- Photography, Video Making and Music with the theme Creative Perception of Energy. In addition to these competitions, it was mentioned that some students would be selected through their active participation in the BLOGS and DISCUSSION FORUM sections.


I had no idea about Music, I was never a part of any music band. So, my participation in one contest was ruled out. Neither I was a great photographer, nor did I have a good camera. I was not good at video-making even. For a while I thought, it would be a tight rope walk for me to get selected for the Youth Forum through these contests. But, I was perseverant in my spirits; I decided to make most use of those 2 days. That night I went to my senior’s house in Patna (6 hours journey from Dhanbad) on his invitation, stayed there for a day which included a visit to Patna’s Eco-Friendly Park. There I captured an aesthetic view of a Solar Lamp in the green scenery. I was proud at that moment for my chances got improved. After returning to college from Patna, I was preparing myself for the viva-voce examination and at the same time thinking about different concepts on which I can prepare a video. Got some ideas and finalized two concepts; one on “Switch to CNG” and the other, “Future is in our hands”. Soon after the viva-voce examination, went around the campus with my friend’s mobile (it had a good camera), got some photos clicked and some videos shooted before packing my luggage and leaving Dhanbad for Home!!


In the month of December at home, I uploaded some photos that I had clicked. Downloaded some video-making software (Windows Live Movie Maker, Cam Studio, Screen Recorder, Audio Cutter, and Power Point), learnt them through tutorials and prepared two videos. I wrote my first ever blog on ReYuvaNation and I was actively taking part in almost every discussion and Blog that was posted in the Forum. Through Blogs and posts in Discussion Forum, I shared my views on various topics ranging from Energy Security to Pollution aspects. I designed a cross-word Puzzle which according to some participants was a tough nut to crack. As the time progressed I got confidence that I would be selected for the ReYuvanation. I was optimistic and started my preparations for the Quiz that would be organised as a part of the day long event.


It was 23rd December that I got a mail from team Reyuvanation confirming my participation! I was thrilled at my selection, got my tickets booked, but I did not stop posting and commenting in the Blogs and Discussions Sections. 


2013 ended and on the First day of the New Year 2014, I was sending e-greetings (designed by me using Photoshop) to all my friends. On the very same day, the results of the war that I waged at the end of November were out. I got 2nd rank in my Petroleum Engineering Dual Degree Branch. A little bit disappointed that I slipped to 2nd from the 1st in last semester. But, that disappointment faded away with my preparations to the Reyuvanation. On 4th January boarded train to my college, Indian School of Mines at Dhanbad. In the 34 hours of journey I completed reading all the material that I brought with me as a part of preparations to quiz (The material included complete overview of ONGC, OIL, IOCL, BPCL, HPCL, and Petrotech).


Reached college, attended 4 days of classes and boarded train for the much awaited Reyuvanation in New Delhi. Interestingly, the entire coach was filled with Chinese people travelling to explore India. And the sad part is that none of them knew English and Hindi for them is like an Einstein’s Relativity theory for kindergarten kids. I felt like as if I am a strange Indian travelling in a Chinese train. Meanwhile in the journey, as a part of my preparations to the quiz, I completed reading about GAIL, Schlumberger, Cairn, Reliance, and detailed overview of DGH.   


Finally I reached New Delhi, and from there caught a metro in Yellow line from New Delhi Metro Station to Rajeev Chowk, changed to Blue Line and reached Botanical Garden Metro Station. PETROTECH 2014 bus was waiting to pick us up. As I boarded the bus, a young energetic person was receiving us and I read Anup Saraf written on his ID Card. When I told him that I am Vikram Sai from ISM Dhanbad, he started praising me about my posts in blogs and discussions. I recollected and told him- Mr. Anup Saraf, yours was the first post in the Blogs Section. He replied-“uske baad toh tumne moka hi nhi diya yaar (you didn’t give any chance for me after that)”. Shocked!! I was completely amazed at the way he was praising me. We reached the hotel Formule1 in Greater Noida, where we were provided accommodation. As students we were feeling special to stay in that Hotel. While I was with Mr. Anup Saraf in the Lift, he introduced me to another young lady (Ms. Shwetha), and she excitingly shook hands with me praising my posts. I was nervous! Never thought my posts would get that popular.


In the night, after having our dinner, in my hotel room, I was preparing for the Quiz, revising all the facts and stats. My friends and juniors joined, and in no less than half-an-hour my room turned into a common room with around 15 students mutually exchanging knowledge. Since ONGC is organising, I thought many questions in the quiz would be related to ONGC. So, opened ONGC’s facebook page and started noting down all the interesting stats and records. Through the posts of that page I came to know that players like Snooker Champion Aditya, Shooters Shwetha & Shagun are ONGCians. Also I came to know that 8 time World-Billiards champion Mr. Pankaj Advani is also an ONGCian.


11th January 2014. Reyuvanation!


It is the day we have been waiting for since a month. Reached Hotel Le Meridian in New Delhi. The venue was so grand that it needed no decoration. There I met Mr. Monish, who greeted me for my posts. Never in my life, I felt so special! The Hall was filled enthusiastic students who got selected like me from different parts of the country. The first event of the day- Panel Discussion on “Shakti-A potential Game Changer” kicked off and we heard the views of Mr. Sudhir Vasudeva (CMD ONGC), Ms. Panabaka Lakshmi (Minister of State, MoPNG), Mr. Narendra Kumar Verma (Director Exploration, ONGC), Yasmine Hilton (Chairman, Shell India), Ms Ulrike von Lonski (Director of WPC) and Jyoti Rana (ONGC). Seeing all of them on one stage itself was a great achievement. After listening to the views from the panellists, some students raised some interesting questions which were clearly answered by the panellists. Overall the session was an unforgettable experience for all the participants.


Panel Discussion ended and it is time for the much awaited Quiz!! Each of the participants was given a device, which was very much similar to a TV remote to cast our answers for the questions. In the preliminary round there would be 25 questions and the top 8 individuals (higher score with lower cumulative time) would get qualified for the main quiz. It’s time to showcase my one-month of hard work. But, out of the 25, only 10 questions were related to Energy and the rest from General aspects. Prelims started and I knew answers to almost 20 questions. “The results of prelims were out, and I got through the prelims to the final quiz !!”- I wanted to write this here, but not got selected. The other participants were better performers than me and I was supposed to be part of the Audience. The disappointment of all the unlucky participants like me got nullified with the quiz master introducing 4 celebrities who would be the team leaders of 4 final teams. The quiz master started introducing the celebrities and I was equally getting excited to see each of them; Shooters Shwetha and Shagun, Snooker champion Aditya, and the Under 19 cricket team captain Unmukt Chand. Each of them chose two from the 8 selected participants. So, there were 4 teams, each team consisting of 3. All the audience were feeling envious now, for not getting a chance to play with those celebrities. There were 4 rounds in the quiz, each of them completely different with questions getting innovative with the rounds. Team Shagun was outstanding and won the first prize, followed by team Unmukt in second place and team Shwetha in third. The event concluded with the team leaders giving away their team-mates the prizes. First prize-Laptops, Second Prize-iPhones, Third Prize-Tablets.


It was soon followed by a Lavish Lunch! During the lunch I was subjected to sharp comments from my friends who mocked at me for my preparations to quiz going in vain. I enjoyed those moments realising that, preparation for quizzes is not a one month affair, it should be a daily routine of continuous learning. 


Soon after the lunch I went to get the print out of my travel ticket, submission of which would entitle me for the travel reimbursement. Got the print-out at the reception point in the hotel. They charged 70 Rs for one page. I was surprised, that for the same printer, same ink and same paper outside the hotel, the charge is 70 Paise and inside it is 70 Rupees. Someone rightly said, in 5 Star hotels we see the stars, when we look at the bill.
While returning to the Reyuvanation venue, Ms. Swetha told me to share my views about the event in front of a camera recording. Mr. Anup Saraf on my side, with mic in hand, started-“Here we have Vikram Sai. He has literally torn our site apart with his posts in blogs and discussion forum. We are even thinking of giving him a special award for his participation. Let us now hear his views on the Reyuvanation”, and he handed over the mic to me. I was overwhelmingly feeling happy for that introduction. In a flash, I spoke about the event and thanked the organisers for providing many students that excellent opportunity (I am not good at impromptu speeches). Soon after that I realised, I might be given some prize and so started penning down what to speak when called upon the stage.


Afternoon session started with Ms. Meghna from Reyuvanation team taking the responsibility of introducing the online contests. Selected participants from the Music competition played their music works. The first one Oorja by Vipin Kumar & Prabal Pratap Singh from ONGC blew away everyone’s drowsiness after that heavy meal and was a booster which re-energised the entire audience. The second one by Mr. Faisal Gul was equally thrilling and ended with audience chanting- Once more Once more! The third one was sung by the Guitarist, Mr. Prabal, and I am running out of words to describe it. The entries for the contest were judged by renowned Musician, Ms Vandana Kohli, who also awarded the first three prizes and one special mention award. Then, the top 3 entries and special mention awards in the video-making competition were distributed after after displaying the videos. Sadly, I didn’t win any award.


Following that there was a laughter show from Stand-up comic Group Evam, which left the audience laughing to their stomachs out. After that, the top 10 entries in the photography contest were displayed, followed by the distribution of prizes to the top 3 entries and Popular Entry (audience choice award) by the famous photographer form Hindustan Times, Mr Gurinder Osan.


There was a short-break after that session, during which I met a cool person who looked like a workaholic, Mr. Ragalbande from team Reyuvanation. Realising that both of us belong to Andhra Pradesh, our language of conversation moved from English to Telugu via Hindi. He also appreciated my posts! I came to know from him that they are a team of just 11. I wonder how just 11 people were organising such a huge event. A cricket team consists of batsmen, bowlers and all-rounders, but this Reyuvanation team must be comprising of all 11 specialist all-rounders, I thought.


After the short-break, there was a speech by Mr. Ramamurthy, Director and Head of South East Asia from Schlumberger on Future of Petroleum Industry. It was short, sweet and informative. He projected the oil industry in a completey different perspective and showcased it as an exciting field to work with. It was then followed by “A speech to remember” from Youth Icon, 8 time world Billiards Champion Mr. Pankaj Advani. It was indeed a speech to remember. Then Mr. Pankaj Advani handed the award of the best Logo Designer who designed the logo of Reyuvanation. Soon, the anchor announced, “we have a special award for the most active participation in the online Blogs and Discussion Forums and he also created a cross-word puzzle. I now would like to request you to give away the Best Blogger award to Mr. Vikram Sai from ISM Dhanbad”. Sense of pride filled in me as I walk amidst the clapping of the audience towards the stage. Previous day I read about Pankaj Advani and the very next day I was shaking hands with him! Never in dreams I thought, I would get the opportunity to receive an award from the great Pankaj Advani, that too in the presence of dignitaries like Mr. Sudhir Vasudeva, CMD of ONGC.


I was walking back from dias thinking that- had I got an opportunity, I would have said-“While I was participating in online Blogs, I never thought I would get a prize. I wrote my First ever Blog on ReYuvaNation website a month ago, and today I am feeling overwhelmingly happy receiving this award. National Youth Day is celebrated on 12th of January. So, here, on 11th January, we are celebrating it a day in advance, thanks to Petrotech and ONGC. On behalf of all the students present here I would like to thank the organising team of ReYuvaNation for their continuous efforts since early December starting from online competitions, selecting students through them, receiving us from Station to looking after all the necessary arrangements. Thanks again, Team ReYuvaNation”.


My friends were more interested than me to explore what the prize was. It was a Samsung Galaxy Tab 3 sponsored by Schlumberger!! And I earned my first smart phone!
In the short break before the start of Cultural Evening, I met a dynamic, elegant and a tough to forget personality, Mr. Jitendra Tikku. The very first glance at him made me think-“He must be the captain of the 11 membered Reyuvanation Team”. He congratulated me for my award and my posts! He credited me as the heaviest Blogger and said, “pata nhi padhta tha ki nhi (don’t know whether he used to study or not)”, for which I replied, “I participated in the winter vacations sir”.


Cultural Evening started with renowned singer and musician, Ms Sunita Bhuyan, performing on her violin. In the end, she played Assamese music, for which she wanted the audience to stand up and dance. The audience were feeling shy! Finally, the young lady Ms. Jyoti Rana (first woman to work offshore) took the initiative and gathered a couple of more girls with her. The trio started dancing in the front, and then young Engineers of ONGC joined them. Soon, some students joined, some more students led by me joined them and a virtual dancing arena was created. Meanwhile some of the organisers joined us and danced too! As soon as her performance got completed, audience rushed towards the dinner may be because they got hungry after dancing.


After having our dinner and when we were about leave the venue, the anchor announced-“All those who danced earlier, collect your goodies”. In no less than 10 seconds, the podium around the anchor was flooded by students not ready to let the chance of losing their goodies.


Many students were engaged in taking their own photographs in all possible styles. Most of them would have changed their Profile pics and Cover pics on Facebook that Night!!



Posted By :Team ReYuvaNation

Are we moving away from a PSC (Production Sharing Contract) to a more or less Service Contract? As per an article from times of India "The 10th round of auction under the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP-X) will require bidders to quote the amount of oil or gas output they are willing to offer to the government from the first day of production". Well, not exactly a service contract wherein the operator is required to bid for a service fee called as RFB (Remuneration Fee Bid) and the lowest bidder gets the block but the suggested change for the X bidding round resembles a service contract in a way that it requires an operator to quote an amount of oil or gas that they are willing to share with the government. I believe its a good move for it will lead to eradication of gold plating and other ill practices involved in the calculation of entitlement. What's your take? ...
Posted By :Ehtesham Siddique

UAV Quadrotors As we all know that field work in the back bone for all petroleum industries. Similarly refineries are for a country. Nowadays it is very crucial for a developing nation to use a lot of technology just to minimize the wastage of energy. So, why not go for uavs (unmanned armed vehicles). 

The popularity of UAV Quadrotors has been only among military applications till 1996. However, with the development of complex and capable electronics ranging from more powerful, light-weight microcontrollers to even smaller sensors with better accuracy and precision, it's possible to build Quadrotors with variety of sizes for different applications. 

Quadrotors particularly have been getting quite a lot of attention lately due to several reasons. One of these reasons is the fact that a Quadrotor is relatively easy to build and assemble, having less mechanical complexities than other aircraft such as helicopters, in most cases no gearing between the rotor and the motor is required. 

Another reason is the fact that the design of a Quadrotor is depending on four propellers instead of one big rotor, which is great due to the less kinetic energy generated, and so in a case of crash the damage would be less catastrophic and easier to fix and maintain. Also the relative small size of a Quadrotor, which could also be big in several applications, makes it suitable for surveillance and other tasks where small size is critical. The ability to control and hover a Quadrotor in low-speeds and its outstanding maneuverability makes it perform in an excellent manner in aerial photography, scientific exploration, and small-sized items transportation. Search & Rescue in places that are dangerous or unreachable for humans, Quadrotors can do the job in searching and stream live images of the scene. 

Now lets talk about the applications of this in petroleum industries:- • Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) • Oil Spill Detection • Oil Spill Damage Assessment • Oil/Gas Pipeline Surveillance (which includes change detection software capability) • Incident Mapping • Search and Rescue (SAR) • Coastline Monitoring • Sea Ice Monitoring • Terrain Mapping • Asset Security 

The use of UAVs in the offshore exploration industry hasn’t been as rapid as it could have been, not due to a lack of technology – the platforms certainly exist – but to a lack of recognized standards and protocols, a problem that is common to all UAV-receptive industries.
Posted By :ani sharma

Amusing Oil & Gas Dictionary of Historical Terminology
Terminology used in Petroleum Industry is very funny. All of them are derived from our day-to-day activities. We are aware of some funny but very important terms like Rat Hole, Mouse Hole, Monkey Board, Roughneck, finger board, Christmas Tree, Sucker Rod etc,. 
Here are a few more amusing terms used in oil industry. 

Atlantic Ocean
A salt-water well that produces little or no oil. In the 1850’s salt water well drilling was prominent down by Pittsburgh.
Attic Hand
A worker in a drilling or a production crew who is employed in the derrick, usually climbing the tall heights of the derrick.
Descriptive of a worn drilling bit. Many drilling bits were sharpened by toolies before oil was struck.
Bird Dog
An early term used for geologists, who were so called because they were supposed to be able to “smell out” oil. 
Carbon Oil
A trade name for kerosene used around 1850-55.
Cash on the Barrel-Head
A term allegedly originating in the oil field in the 1860’s when old Major Adams, manager of the Clapp Farm near Oil City, Pennsylvania, sold his first thousand barrels of oil for cash. As the story goes, he kicked the nearest oak barrel upright and counted the $10,000 on the barrel’s head.
Christmas Tree
An assembly of valves, pipes, and fittings the top of a well controlling the flow of oil and gas.
Crude Skinners
Early oil teamsters who replaced the boatmen who originally floated the oil down the creek during a pond freshet.
Derrick Apples
Small parts of the derrick that sometimes fall to the floor; nuts, bolts, washers, and even mud (which shrinks as it dries and falls to the floor.)
Any small house on a leases; a place to keep lease records, hang one’s cot, change clothing, or get out of the weather. 
Elephant Well
The third producing well in Titusville, Pennsylvania; so named because it produced what was at that time (1860) an enormous yield, 75 to 80 barrels a day.
Clothing worn by the oilfield workers. It usually consisted of a flannel shirt, corduroy trousers, high topped boots or heavy shoes with leggings for the rugged country.
Oil Drummer
A salesman of petroleum products. Usually traveling the country side with wagon carrying his various wares. John Eaton, the founder of Oil Well Supply, began in this manner.
Oil Fever
The “disease” of eager oil speculators. Otherwise known as “oil on the brain.”
A deep rock fissure. Pithole Creek, Pennsylvania, was named for the pitholes there; because of their great depth and the steam that arose from them, constantly accompanied by foul odors, they were never completely explored. Some believed that the pitholes were entrances to hell and the odor was that of brimstone; others believe that they indicated the presence of petroleum. Oil was discovered there in 1864.
All the boring and pumping equipment, including the derrick, used in locating and securing oil.
It is a variety of bitumen; for bitumen is the general term applied to inflammable substances, whether fluid or solid, which is found in the earth or exuding from its surface, and of a particular, disagreeable odor. 
Rope Choker
A cable tool driller. 
Name given to a member of the crew of an oil derrick during drilling operations. The crew is supervised by the tool pusher who operates the drilling equipment.
A semi-skilled laborer who assists the foreman in the general work around producing oil wells and around the property of an oil company. The name was originally given to the laborer who assisted in the loading and unloading of river craft. 2. A common laborer who fires the boiler, does odd jobs about the rig, and aspires to be a tool dresser or a roughneck.
One who shoots oil wells with nitroglycerin to loosen or shatter the sand and to increase the flow of an oil well.
A modern cable tool rig used in drilling. By using this rig it was no longer necessary to build a derrick.
Stripper Well
A flowing well in the 1860’s that flowed constantly during the week days, but ceased on the Sabbath. It was regarded with some superstition by the workmen, and regarded as a great curiosity for a short while. It was thought to be caused by a peculiar confirmation of the veins with relation to the cavities containing the oil.
Nickname for a tool dresser, the driller’s assistant at an oil well, responsible for sharpening or dressing the drill bit. A junior driller.
A strong shell or water-tight box filled with powder, and exploded by a galvanic battery. The explosion is supposed to distend the opening, enlarging the veins, and preparing for the flow of the oil to the region of the pump. Nitroglycerin was also exploded in a well to remove obstructions or reach oil.
West Virginia Rule
A rule adopted in 1886 which set the measure of a barrel as 40 liquid gallons plus 2 more gallons in favor of the buyer.
One who drills for oil in unproven territory in the hopes of striking it rich.
A spudder for drilling the borehole down to the rock; so called because it has an up and down motion like a toy yo-yo.

Posted By :Vikram Sai

Unconventional Techniques for Gas Hydrates Exploitation

Gas hydrates are cage-like crystalline compounds in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming solids at low temperature and high pressure. They resemble wet snow and belong to a form of complexes known as clatharates. 

With growing energy demands and depleting conventional sources of energy like petroleum, coal & natural gas, gas hydrates can be a potential source of energy. It is estimated that the worldwide amounts of methane bound in gas hydrates are twice the total amount of carbon to be found in all fossil fuels on earth ranging from 10to 3X10trillion cu ft. One volume of gas hydrate can contain as much 164 volumes of methane gas and this storage capacity may represent source of natural gas, thus proving gas hydrates as potential cleaner fuel resource. 

But unfortunately, sparse distribution and geo-hazards have made the economic projects of gas hydrate production less viable. Major exploitation techniques which have been considered for commercial use till now were depressurisation, thermal stimulation and chemical injection. But these methods are not viable as they are less efficient, highly expensive and can bring hazardous change in under water sediments and have high energy consumption. However, the recent advancement in gas hydrate studies has revealed various new exploitation techniques such as COswapping technique and use of anaerobic bacteria.  

In CO2 swapping techniques, methane gas trapped in hydrate phase is substituted by CO2 molecules thus dissociating methane for energy production. In anaerobic bacteria method, an anaerobic archae bacteria namely methanogenic archae bacteria is used to convert CO2 and water to methane. The above process is exothermic in nature and can increase the temperature of water above its boiling point and causes gas hydrates to liberate methane. Advantages of the above method is excess production of methane along with the one that is trapped within the water molecules, and further, methanogenic bacteria can be easily artificially cultured and survive at desired temperature. 

The above suggested methodology is an optimised and economical way to recover gas hydrates. It will help to change the focus of extracting resources from conventional to unconventional resources and will also lead to sustainable development and reduce the hazard of global warming to large extent. 

Posted By :Amay Jha

safety integrity managment of drilling rigs

Hydrocarbon operations are generally hazardous in nature by virtue of intrinsic chemical properties of hydrocarbons or their temperature or pressure of operation or a combination of these. Fire, explosion, hazardous release or a combination of these are the hazards associated with hydrocarbon operations. These have resulted in the development of more comprehensive, systematic and sophisticated methods of Safety Engineering, such as, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment to improve upon the integrity, reliability and safety of hydrocarbon operations.

The primary emphasis in safety engineering is to reduce risk to human life and environment. The broad tools attempt to minimize the chances of accidents occurring. Yet, there always exists, no matter how remote, that small probability of a major accident occurring. If the accident involves hydrocarbons in sufficient large quantities, the consequences may be serious to the project, to surrounding area and the population therein. Derrick floor is the center stage of all the drilling operations and it is most susceptible to accidents. Safety precautions with utmost care are required to be taken during drilling as per the prevailing regulations and practices so that accidents can be avoided. Due to advancement in technology, number of equipments have been developed over a period of time to cater the need ofsmooth operation on derrick floor. Various standards are required to be referred to cover the variety of equipments used for safe operation in drilling and it is desirable to use a properly prepared manual for occupational safety while working or drilling over a rig. 
Posted By :arjun guglani

Timeline of Petroleum Industry
1748 Peter Kalm of Sweden published map showing oil springs of Oil Creek, PA
1785 General William Irvine reported "Oil Creek, PA
1790 Nathaniel Carey skimmed oil from springs near Titusville, PA
1795 Joseph Scott, first U. S. gazetteer, reported about Oil Creek and Seneca Oil
1795-1800 Crude oil quoted at $16.00 per gallon
1833 Prof. Benjamin Silliman Sr. experimentally distilled crude petroleum
1859 August 27 -Edwin L. Drake's well, drilled 69 ½ feet, struck oil near Titusville PA (first well deliberately drilled for oil) and launched the modern petroleum industry
August 30 - John Grandin & H. H. Dennis drilled in Tionesta,PA - first dry hole
October 7 - Drake's well ignited by gas and destroyed - first oil well fire on record,
well house rebuilt and oil equipment replaced
1860 April - Steamboat "Venango" carried first load of petroleum to Pittsburgh
1864 "Coal Oil Johnny" Steele began spending spree
1865 Pithole Creek oil field discovered
1867 E.A.L. Roberts licensed by Alfred Nobel to use dynamite in shooting wells.
1867 Nikolaus Otto invented early internal combustion engine
1871 Titusville Oil Exchange formed
1872 Newton Gas Well, Titusville, produced gas for 250 customers.
1874 Bradford oil field boom
1877 Pithole Borough Charter annulled
1878 Standard Oil controlled 90% of nation's refining capacity
1880 November 8 - Edwin Drake died in Bethlehem, PA, at age 61
1881 Standard Oil organized the National Transit Company
1882 Standard Oil Trust organized
1885 German engineer Karl Benz built first internal combustion engine vehicle
1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act
1893 Thomas Edison introduced motion pictures
1899 Standard Oil reorganized as holding company in NJ
1900 8000 automobiles owned in the United States, half sold this year
1908 October 1 - First Model T Ford built
1920 8,500,000 automobiles & trucks registered in the U.S.
1927 Charles A. Lindberg made first successful trans-Atlantic flight
Posted By :Amay Jha

go green with a tremendous threat to the earth its very essential to adopt and use less pollution creating technologies to keep the life saving earth green

Posted By :Sumit Kumar Singh

Accidents in Oil Industry.

Safety of the personnel is the first priority in any industry site of an oil company. Even though all the safety measures are followed, sometimes accidents take place because of uncontrolled kicks or blowout or fire accidents. This makes oil industry vulnerable to unexpected catastrophes. While on the onland rigs and processing facilities, there is a greater chance of escaping from fatal accidents, in offshore it becomes difficult to escape as the rig is surrounded by water on all sides. That is the reason why most of the fatal accidents took place offshore.  

Here is a timeline of some major oil industry accidents in the past 30 years:

March 1980 - The Alexander Keilland rig, a Pentagon-type semi-submersible rig in the North Sea's Ekofisk field, breaks up after a fatigue fracture. As a result of storm winds and waves, 123 of the 212 crew were killed.

February 1982 - The Ocean Ranger semi-submersible drilling rig sinks about 166 miles off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, while operating the Hibernia oil field. The accident, which occurred during a huge storm, killed 84 crew members.

October 1983 - The U.S. drill ship Glomar Java Sea sinks in the South China Sea around 63 miles southwest of Hainan Island, where it was contracted to ARCO China. It capsized and sank within minutes, killing all 81 people aboard.

August 1984 - A blowout on the Enchova platform operated by Brazilian state oil company Petrobras in the Campos Basin caused an explosion and a fire that led to the death of 42 workers as they were being evacuated. Seventeen others were injured in the explosion and fire.

July 1988 - In world's worst oil rig disaster, 167 people are killed when Occidental Petroleum's Piper Alpha oil rig in the North Sea explodes after a gas leak.

September 1988 - Four workers are killed when an oil rig owned by Total Petroleum of France explodes and sinks off the southeastern coast of Borneo.

November 3, 1989 - The 4,400-tonne Unocal-owned drillship capsizes and sinks during Typhoon Gay in the South China Sea, south of Bangkok. At least 91 of the 97 crew on board died.

January 1995 - Thirteen people are killed and many injured in an explosion on a Mobil oil rig off the coast of Nigeria.

January 1996 - Three people are killed in an explosion on a rig in the Morgan oil field in the Gulf of Suez.

March 2001 - The P-36 offshore production platform operated by Brazilian state oil company Petrobras was rocked by explosions that killed 11 people. It sank off the coast of Rio de Janeiro five days later, spilling some of the 10,000 barrels of fuel and crude it was storing into the Atlantic.

July 2005 - A fire destroyed the Mumbai High North processing platform off India's west coast, killing 22 people and affecting 123,000 bpd of crude production, or 15 percent of the country's domestic output. The platform was owned by ONGC.

October 2007 - During stormy weather, the Usumacinta rig collided with the Kab-101 platform off the coast of Mexico, causing fuel leaks and killing 22 workers who tried to flee in life rafts in one of state oil firm Pemex's worst accidents.

April 20, 2010 - Explosion and fire on the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig kills 11 workers. The rig, owned by Transocean Ltd and licensed to BP, was drilling 42 miles southeast of Venice, Louisiana, in 5,000 feet of water. The well had reached 13,000 feet under the seabed. On April 22, the rig, valued at more than $560 million, sinks and a 5-mile oil slick forms.

May 13, 2010 - All 95 workers are rescued after the Aban Pearl platform, operated by Venezuela's state-owned PDVSA, sinks in the Caribbean Sea, apparently after water flooded one of the giant submarine rafts supporting the football field-sized structure.

December 18, 2011 - The 'Kolskaya' jack-up rig, operated by Russian offshore exploration company Arktikmorneftegazrazvedka (AMNGR), capsizes while being towed in a storm, some 200 kilometers (125 miles) off the coast of Sakhalin island. The rig had 67 crew aboard of whom 14 have been rescued.

Posted By :Vikram Sai

Rice Husk: waste to energy! In an indian scenario,what we need is energy and what we have is agriculture.This means that our strength is agriculture.so what about an idea where we can convert our strength to fulfil our energy demands?yes,it can be done. In my final year engineering project i fabricated a stove where rice husk was used to produce a combustible gas.In a short description, the stove was used to provide a chamber was used to provide an aerobic combustion of the rice husk char(not ash or raw husk) which produced a gas called CH4 or methane. This gas is highly combustible and can be lit with just a spark as in case of LPG cylinder stoves. The flame was blue in color which indicates complete combustion and hence less pollution. Just imagine if we can store this gas in compressed cylinders or in liquified form then it can be a used in household needs.Compressed husk gas can be used to run combustion engines. In this way we can encourage agriculture in our country,give a new zeal to the farmers as well as provide a promising solution to our country's energy needs. ...
Posted By :Mrinmoy Borah